In terms of quantitative research questions, the type of research question (i.e., descriptive, comparative and/or relationship) helps to explain the purpose of the research. These factors include: (a) the types of quantitative research questions you are trying to answer; (b) the variables you want to measure, manipulate and/or control; (c) how you should structure your research questions; and (d) whether you should use research questions as opposed to research hypotheses. If you choose to use research hypotheses, whether instead of research questions or in addition to them, these should be written differently to research questions. Research Outcome Number 2. Each of these questions is addressed in more detail in the sections that follow. Gender identity of religious and secular Arab and Jewish women are related to different sociopolitical social orders that reflect the different value systems they embrace (nondirectional hypotheses). Quantitative research questions and research hypotheses are designed to accomplish different tasks: Explain the purpose of the research. Research questions can be used instead of hypotheses when there is little previous research on the subject. Hypotheses are tested through statistical procedures in which inferences are drawn about the population from the study sample. What variables you are interested in and which variables you are trying to measure, manipulate and/or control. Those hypotheses are then tested with further qualitative or quantitative research. Four key components to a research project are the purpose statement, research questions, hypotheses, and research objectives. Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 4th ed. In this post, we will define each of these. arxiv.org. For example: The way that you structure your research questions; that is, the way that you write out your research questions will vary depending on the type of research question you are trying to answer [see the article: How to structure quantitative research questions]. After stating your research purpose, you should narrow the focus of your study through specific questions to be answered or hypotheses to be tested. Quantitative research questions tend to start with words like "What are", "How do", "Does", "How often", amongst others. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, 2nd ed. A researcher formulates hypothesis based on the problem formulation and theoretical study. Determine the correct order for the variables you are investigating. For this reason, we distinguish between independent and dependent variables. To write good qualitative research questions, consider the followings: Examples for qualitative research questions, Quantitative research questions and hypotheses. On the other hand, continuous variables, also known as quantitative variables, can be further classified a being either interval or ratio. How to write good quantitative research questions and hypotheses? Having identified the variables to include in your research, you will need to structure your research questions in a way that the reader can clearly understand what you are trying to achieve. The research question is one of the most important parts of your research project, thesis or dissertation. Sometimes dissertations should include both research questions and research hypotheses although this is not always the case: If you feel like the research questions are no more than a repetition of the research hypotheses, it is often better to include only one or the other (i.e., only research hypotheses or only research questions). How you structure these research questions will depend on the type of research questions you have and the variables you are examining. Quantitative research questions are based on one of three basic approaches to examining the variables you are interested in. Qualitative Research Question Example. But they can also be used in quantitative studies. How do the students rate on critical thinking skills? Which words you start with will depend on the type of quantitative research question you are trying to create (i.e., descriptive, comparative and/or relationship) and the goal of the question. In experiments the use of hypotheses are more frequent. research questions and hypotheses narrow the purpose statement and become major signposts for readers. A variable is not only something that we measure, but also something that we can manipulate and something we can control for. These three approaches to examining the variables you are interested in (i.e., describing, comparing and relating) are addressed by setting descriptive, comparative or relationship-based research questions. We could describe factors relating to the make-up of these Facebook users, quantifying how many (or what proportion) of these university students were male or female, or what their average age was. Research questions are often used in qualitative research, which seek to answer open-ended questions. Religious women with salient gender identity are less socio-politically active than secular women with salient gender identities (directional hypotheses). Let's imagine we are interested in examining Facebook usage amongst university students in the United States. Inferential questions that relate variables or compare groups, following these descriptive questions. Expect your research questions to be evolved during your study. Are there different types of hypotheses? If the research hypotheses build on the research questions, especially if there are multiple research hypotheses used to address a single research question, we would recommend using research questions and research hypotheses. Measure your independent and dependent variables separately. (An inferential question relating the independent and the dependent variables). Descriptive hypotheses are temporary conjectures about the value of a variable, not expressing relationships or comparisons. Examples for qualitative research questions How do early adolescent females read literature that falls outside the realm of fictions? Armed with this knowledge, you now need to think about how to structure your quantitative research questions; that is, how you can write out your research questions in a way that the reader can clearly understand what you are trying to achieve. For the most part, qualitative research is exploratory. With a clear purpose in place, quantitative researchers have a roadmap for crafting their research questions and hypotheses that will further focus the approach they will take to investigate their topic (i.e., their study’s research design). Qualitative research in the social sciences usually takes the form of phenomenological, grounded theory, or case study research. (b) How do women in a psychology doctoral program describe school change these women’s lives? Research question examples. For quantitative business research it is imperative that the research questions used allow your respondents to answer succinctly. 10 Examples of Research Questions with H0 and H1 Hypotheses. Should you use quantitative research questions or research hypotheses? Qualitative research vs quantitative research. How to structure quantitative research questions, how to structure quantitative research questions. However, there is more than one type of quantitative research question that you can attempt to answer [see the article, Types of quantitative research question, for a more comprehensive look at these types of quantitative research question]. Use exploratory verbs that express the language of emerging design of research, e.g., discover, seek to understand, explore a process, describe the experiences, and report the stories. Make sure your hypothesis is testable with research and experimentation. In a qualitative study, researchers develop research questions, not objectives (i.e., specific goals for the research) or hypotheses (i.e., predictions to be tested). These good and bad examples will demonstrate the qualities you need for an effective research question. PF: What is the percentage of junior high school mathemati… These predictions comes from relevant literature and may be: directional (e.g., ‘higher’, ‘lower’, ‘more’, or ‘less’) and nondirectional (“There is a difference” between). You believe in something, and you're seeking to prove it. To write good quantitative research questions and hypotheses, consider the followings: Examples for null, directional, and nondirectional hypotheses, Examples for descriptive and inferential questions. Quantitative research is a research strategy that focuses on quantifying the collection and analysis of data. For example, the variable gender (male or female) in the Facebook example is a dichotomous variable. The investigator makes a prediction about the expected result for the population of the study. If hypotheses are used, there are two basic forms: A null hypothesis, which makes a prediction that in the general population, no relationship or no difference exists between groups on a variable. (2012). Potential descriptive quantitative research questions would be: What are the reasons that encourage students to join Facebook? Before developing a hypothesis, a researcher must formulate the research question. Impact of Social Media Reviews on Brands Perception. In quantitative research, you usually work with at least two variables. If you are interested in a particular section, click on the links below: Dissertations that are based on a quantitative research design attempt to answer at least one quantitative research question. Qualitative studies use data collected from participant observations, the observations of researchers, interviews, texts and similar sources of information. Research Questions and Hypotheses I nvestigators place signposts to carry the reader through a plan for a study. Explain the predictions being made (or otherwise) by the researcher based on specific hypothesis statements. (a) How do women in a psychology doctoral program describe their decision to return to school? Does critical thinking ability relate to student achievement? Constructing Hypotheses in Quantitative Research. Quantitative descriptive questions. (An inferential question relating the independent and the dependent variables, controlling for the effects of the two controlled variables). There is no "one best way" to structure a quantitative research question. However, we recommend an approach that is based on three steps: Choose the type of quantitative research question you are trying to create. The type of quantitative research question you are trying to create (i.e., descriptive, comparative and/or relationship) and the choice of variables you are trying to measure, manipulate and/or control (i.e., independent, dependent and/or control variables) influence how you structure the research question. Research Questions and Hypotheses GEORGE A. AMORGAN, PH.D., NDROBERT J. HARMON, M ... hypothcses/questions. Following are some examples of problem formulations (PF), hypotheses (H). Details. Difference Versus Associational Statistics We … 10+ Quantitative Research Examples. How should you structure your quantitative research question? (2003). This section of the article briefly discusses the difference between these three types of quantitative research question. Quantitative Approach In survey projects the use of research questions and objectives is more Frequent. Comparing groups on an independent variable to see its impact on a dependent variable. This process supports the cause and effect logic of quantitative research. As a general rule, we suggest that independent variables are set out first, followed by dependent variables, and then control variables (if there are any). (A descriptive question focused on the dependent variable). PDF; Size: 1.5 MB. Use the same pattern of word order in the questions or hypotheses to help a reader to easily identify your major variables. These research questions adopt two forms: a central question and associated sub questions. The type of research you are conducting will impact the research … This chapter provides a working knowledge of quantitative PROPERTY OF ELSEVIER SAMPLE CONTENT - NOT FINAL . To learn more about these three types of quantitative research question (i.e., descriptive, comparative and relationship-based research questions) in more detail, see the article: Types of quantitative research question. While qualitative research focuses on inspecting ideas and developing theory and hypothesis, the quantitative study aims to test these theories and hypotheses. There’s a big difference between the two types of research. What types of quantitative research question (i.e., descriptive, comparative or relationship-based research questions) you are trying to answer. Our preference and an example of each of these types of questions are given in Table 1. Understanding which of the variables you are studying are the independent, dependent and control variables is necessary in order to know how to structure and write up your research questions. How to write good qualitative research questions? They begin the questions with words such as how or what and use exploratory verbs, such as explore, understand, or discover. Posted October 11, 2017. © 2017 Research Paper Advisor . If you need a guide in doing your research, here are 10+ Quantitative research examples you can use. Usually, you don't want to state a hypothesis as a question. How to structure quantitative research questions. Does critical thinking ability relate to student achievement, controlling or the effects of prior grades in science and the educational attainment of the eight-graders’ parents? We could relate one or more of these factors (e.g., age) to other factors we had examined (e.g., how frequently students used Facebook each week) to find out if there were any associations or relationships between them. Example: Consider the example of a simple association between two variables, Y and X. Understanding the types of quantitative research question (i.e., descriptive, comparative and/or relationship) you want to answer is your first task when using a quantitative research design. (A descriptive question focused on the control variable of prior grades). Qualitative researchers ask at least one central question and several sub questions. 2. Include your variables in your questions and hypotheses in three basic manners: Describing responses to the independent, mediating, or dependent variables. These three basic approaches involve either describing, comparing or relating. 3. An independent variable, sometimes called an experimental or predictor variable, is a variable that is being manipulated in an experiment in order to observe the effect on a dependent variable, sometimes called an outcome variable. Relating one or more independent variables to a dependent variable. Research questions allow the researcher to conduct more open-ended queries, and a wide range of results can be reported. Y is related to X (or, Y is dependent on X). Statistics used to test descriptive hypotheses are sample mean tests or standard deviation tests. 130 Designing Research Research Questions and Hypotheses 131 subquestions narrow the focus of the study but leave open the questioning. These hypothesis statements set out what problem or issue the research is trying to answer, as well as their directionality, which help to explain the predictions being made (or otherwise) by the researcher. As X increases, Y decreases (or, increases in values of X appear to effect reduction in values of Y). An example of quantitative research is the survey conducted to understand the amount of time a doctor takes to tend to a patient when the patient walks into the hospital. Determine differences between variables. Develop either research questions or hypotheses to reduce redundancy. Hypotheses are the testable statements linked to your research question. We use the word groups of variables because both categorical and continuous variables include additional types of variables. The type of research questions you are trying to answer influences the type of quantitative research design you use. What variables are you trying to measure, manipulate and/or control? There is no significant difference between the effects of verbal cues, rewards, and no reinforcement in terms of social interaction for children with autism and their siblings (null hypothesis). 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